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11.08.10 | Color Sensor With Arduino
Filed under: Computer — Tags: , , , , , , , , , — Dr. Ivan @ 19:46 — Comments (67)

Read on to find out how you can make your own color sensor!

The how-to video

For this post I decided to do something slightly different and therefore made a video about the subject. You can view it below.

Schematics and planning

Here are the schematics. Sorry that they hand-drawn, but I was away when I made these and did not have Eagle on my netbook, so pen and paper (and some color markers) had to do.

color_sensor_innards_schematics_principle_scaled color_sensor_innards_schematics_for_proto_scaled color_sensor_innards_cardboard
This is a drawing demonstrating the principle behind the sensor. You can see that I have added NPN transistors to accommodate for use with low-current shift registers. RGB LEDs are on the top left, photoresistor on the right. Notice that I contemplated using two green LEDs at this point. Schematics for the protoboard. A drawing showing how the pieces of black cardboard were to be arranged in relation to main components.


Below you will find photos of the finished project.

color_sensor_innards_protoboard color_sensor_soldering color_sensor_no_cardboard color_sensor_side color_sensor_innards
The protoboard I used. Wires on the back side of the sensor. It was literally hell to solder these with a standard 10 buck soldering iron and a thick tip. If you want something better, transfer the design to Eagle, head over to BatchPCB and order a professional quality PCB. This is the sensor without the cardboard. The sensor fully assembled. Side view. The sensor fully assembled showing the main components behind the cardboard.

Source code

Finally, the source code.

  • serial_color_decode.cpp.This is a small C++ program which runs on Linux and uses SDL to display color. It is well commented and should by all means be the first one you try (at least if you are using Linux).
  • colorsensorreader.tar.bz2 or ColorSensorReader.jar.zip. On the other hand this one is coded in Java and has a nice GUI (see screenshot below). It was tested on Linux, but should work on Windows as well. Getting the serial communications to work with Java on Linux x64 was not straight forward, but follow this description of the process from Arduino’s official website and you will avoid most of the trouble.
  • color_sensor.pde. Arduino sketch code. (Missing in the original version of this blog post. Thanks, Vitali, for noticing!)



Hope you found this useful! Feel free to suggest any improvements :)

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  1. avatar

    I really appreciate your video presentation especially.So,I really thanks.
    I am my senior project on sensing a color of an object,process it with a PIC and light a bulb with the same color of the sensed object.So, I think I got enough information.

    Thank you very much

    keep in touch


    Comment by Million — 09/03/2011 @ 01:24

  2. avatar

    Hi, Million!

    I am glad to hear that you have found interesting information in my article, and thank you for taking interest in the video.

    I wish you luck with your project! Stay tuned for more tutorials in the future!..


    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 09/03/2011 @ 17:19

  3. avatar

    Hi Dr.
    Thank you again for writing me a response.

    I am doing my project on adaptive color light, which senses an object color and lights a bulb with the same color of the sensed object.I use the sensor that u propose(color sensor) and by using ATmega micro controller, I have a plan to do this project.

    If u can, please try to send me some tutorial on related issues

    Thanks in advance


    Comment by Million — 10/03/2011 @ 13:26

  4. avatar

    Actually, Mill, what you are trying to do is really easy to do. Connect your RGB LED to three output pins of the MCU. Then, instead of sending the input color via serial (as in my example above), you could generate a PWM signal according to the red, green and blue values on each of the pins connected to the LED.

    Take a look here, here and here.

    Hope this helps ;)

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 11/03/2011 @ 22:41

  5. avatar

    Thank you very much!!!

    I will check it and I will inform you

    Have a good time


    Comment by Million — 12/03/2011 @ 08:57

  6. avatar

    Doctor Ivan, hi

    Well i am doing a robot for a class, and i want to do a color sensor to control the velocity of two motor. I have some a questions about your sensor:

    1) Do I really need to use the NPN transistors? (I have three MPS 222A)
    2) What is going to be the function of the NPN transistors?

    I really appreciates your time

    Comment by Demian — 10/05/2011 @ 03:25

  7. avatar

    Hi Demian!

    Thanks for checking out my site! To answer your questions:

    1) Well, MPS 222A-s are in fact NPN transistors. NPN is a type of transistor (the other type is PNP), while “MPS222A” is a part ID specific to the manufacturer (in your case Motorola). Take a look at the datasheet here.

    2) No you don’t really need transistors at all. You have basically two choices here: either power the LEDs from your microcontroller and avoid using transistors OR power LEDs directly from a power source and use your MCU to switch the current on and off. Since the latter puts less strain on the microcontroller, it is preferred – especially if you are going to add more components to your system later.

    Hope this helped!

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 10/05/2011 @ 07:13

  8. avatar

    Hi Dr.

    Thanks for answer my questions so quickly, this has been helpful. Well I am going to connect my sensor directly to the Arduino, because my teacher wants that we use programming language. Now my problem is catch the value of the photo-resistance.

    One more time thanks for your time, hope you are fine!

    Comment by Demian — 11/05/2011 @ 01:03

  9. avatar

    Hey Dr. Ivan!

    I just finished my colors sensor!

    Comment by Demian — 11/05/2011 @ 08:18

  10. avatar

    Hi Dr,

    Nice project! Im trying to do something similar.
    How do you calibrate and sample the data from photo-resistors in arduinos ?

    Any help on that, i will appreciate..

    Thank you!

    Comment by Dom — 12/05/2011 @ 04:02

  11. avatar

    @Demian: Congrats, mate! :D

    Hi there!

    Generally speaking, you are using the photoresistor to measure how much light of a given wavelength is reflected from the object. The general way of interacting with photoresistors (and other analog sensors) from an arduino is to hook it up to one of the analog pins (also, don’t forget a pull-down resistor, otherwise you’ll get unstable readings – look it up on wikipedia).

    So, what you do is switch on each of your LEDs one at a time, and then read analog input from the photoregister – using the analogRead() function.

    Calibration is usually done with a white sheet of paper. You simply do the procedure described above to get RGB values of the white color. These are then used for all consecutive measurements as a baseline to normalize against. For the calibration code, take a look at the source code I linked to in the article (the C++ code is better commented, so give it a try first).

    Reasons for doing calibration (or white balancing if you prefer) is to make up for the fact that the LEDs you are using will never be of the same brightness. When you calibrate your sensor you ensure that these differences do not affect your measurements.

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 12/05/2011 @ 18:32

  12. avatar

    can you send to me and tell me detail about the colour sensor…
    also sen to me the circuit to construct the colour sensor..
    i hope you will help me..

    Comment by jabil — 17/05/2011 @ 12:20

  13. avatar

    Hi, jabil! I’m not quite sure I understand what you are looking for. The schematics are included in the blog post above, so are the instructional video and the full source code.

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 18/05/2011 @ 13:43

  14. avatar

    Hi friend! :)

    You could show us the code of the arduino?


    Comment by Vitali — 12/06/2011 @ 20:11

  15. avatar

    Hi, Vitali!

    Thank you for noticing that I haven’t linked to it! It must have totally slipped my mind!

    Fixed ;) (look under the Source code section)


    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 12/06/2011 @ 20:34

  16. avatar

    Thank you!

    Keep it up! I really liked your blog!


    Comment by Vitali — 12/06/2011 @ 21:00

  17. avatar


    Where in C++ code the String “ColorString” get values ​​from the serial port??


    Comment by Vitali — 12/06/2011 @ 21:15

  18. avatar

    Thank you for your kind words!

    It’s line 182: ColorString+=CharFromTTY;

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 12/06/2011 @ 21:18

  19. avatar


    I tested with the bedroom light off, the RGB data values ​​I get are 0 for 3 LEDs.
    I put a white paper in front to calibration, and obtained values (on average low in comparison to your image): 153-107-239 (RGB) and when you put a blue object eg I obtained values: 30-40-180 (on average) and the result color is always 255-255-255 why?
    The picture of my program:


    Comment by Vitali — 16/06/2011 @ 03:44

  20. avatar

    Your values will depend on great many things: sensitivity of your photoresistor, value of the pull-down resistor, brightness of your LEDs etc. So that all depends on your setup – and your values aren’t bad, at least for that blue object of yours.

    Otherwise I’m not sure what to answer you. What code are you using? Mine? Your own? Are you sure your calculations are correct? Have you tried my example code?

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 16/06/2011 @ 08:15

  21. avatar

    Hi Dr Ivan,

    If I want to scale this up slightly, reading 9 sensor at the same time. Do I build 9 of this and put them side by side? I am trying to read the rubik’s cube, so 9 of the result might or might not be the same. (9 Different values). What might your suggestion be?

    Thank you,

    Comment by George — 17/10/2011 @ 15:09

  22. avatar

    Hi George!

    Thank you for reading my blog post!

    To be perfectly honest with you, I do believe that this type of home-built sensor is far too imprecise to distinguish so many different colors. That, of course, depends on what kind of LEDs you are using (intensity) and that you are able to isolate your setup from light.

    I would suggest that you build one such sensor and test it to assess the results.

    Apart from this, you have basically following choices:

    1) Use 9 sensors as you suggest.
    pros: straight-forward to build
    cons: lots of soldering, many pins required (9 analog, 27 digital – although the latter can be reduced with a multiplexer chip or two)

    2) Use 1 sensor and move it around the cube surface
    pros: fewer pins, looks cool ;)
    cons: have to build an assembly to move either the cube or the sensor around

    3) Use a VGA camera
    pros: reliable color recognition, extensible for future upgrades
    cons: a minimum of image processing knowledge required

    Of these three, I would definitely vote for the latter (number 3). It is reliable, rather cheap and far less complex than it seems. In preliminary testing, identify which pixels correspond to which tile on the cube. This of course implies that the cube should always be at a predefined distance from the cam (unless you want to learn image processing in-depth ;) . When actually scanning a cube, you snap a photo, get pixels from each of the small tiles on the cube – and figure out their color one by one. This can quite easily be done on an Arduino – since you (at least theoretically) don’t need to store frame data in RAM.

    Hope this helps!

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 17/10/2011 @ 16:09

  23. avatar

    Hi Dr Ivan,

    Thank you for the speedy and detailed respond, I appreciate them very much. I like the option 3 as well, but from what I read online, the camera they compressed the image into the jpg, and thus, we are not able to read the 40th pixel on 40 row. (Is it true? I read it from the forums).

    For such application, scaning a cube and then collect the information about coloring, what camera module would you recommend? I found it to be a cheerful suggestion, because many people had been telling me it can not be done. The version I see online, the user manually input the orienation (coloring) of the cube. And futhermore, it seems the Arduino does not have the ability to solve the cube itself? The example I see online, the maker he designed a software that runs on the laptop to solve it, and send them back to the Ardunion.

    Thank you very much!

    Comment by George — 17/10/2011 @ 21:05

  24. avatar

    Hi again George!

    I am happy you found my reply informative!

    Well, yes and no – camera output depends largely on the camera. As far as I can see this 10$ CMOS cam at Sparkfun (http://www.sparkfun.com/products/8667) can output raw RGB values for you over standard I2C…

    As for the algorithm – unfortunately here I’ll have to throw in the towel. I have never worked on a problem such as this, but I can already tell you that a brute force approach will most probably consume more memory than what an ATmega 328 has. From a quick look on Wikipedia there are a number of more efficient algorithms – but how much memory they consume is something you’ll have to experiment with.

    Good luck with your project! :)

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 17/10/2011 @ 21:33

  25. avatar

    Hi Dr Ivan,

    After a few days spend on posting various arduino website asking for information about the CMOS camera module, I realize there are actually little information about the interfacing, and about none on the existing coding example. Many forum post are like this, the poster (like me) think it can be done, while the responds from mods are describing the difficulty and some suggestion on the difficulty of the interfacing. I stayed up all night yesterday and finally discovered that. Granted, the posters they usually want to get the whole image, or even take video with the camera. It is more advance than mine, (How to read the RGB value from 40th row, 40th column).

    I think I come to final realization, that it is the best just to build a color sensor with the photo resistor, maybe get 1 working first, after… might be build 9 so I can save some work on moving it x, y directions. I just want to come back with that information! I think the CMOS camera isn’t really popular in the DIY-maker realm yet, as there are little library, and resource on such topic, it “can” be done, but these I would assume is professional (10 years+) engineers who knows in and out of the camera chip.

    Many many thanks to your tutorial, comments and your inputs. I am truly grateful.

    Comment by George — 21/10/2011 @ 15:01

  26. avatar

    Hi there, George!

    Well, CMOS cameras are really neat – the problem is that its use is very limited on an Arduino, due to the platform’s strictly limited resources, thus not many tend to use them with this microcontroller. Handling communication with this type of camera is not necessarily difficult. Arduino, I belive, already has an I2C library to handle the underlying communications protocol for you. The rest depends largely on the camera specs, and here you will have to study the documentation that Sparkfun has linked to.

    All of this is not done in a day if you do not have any prior experience. I do not think 10 years engineering education is needed strictly speaking. With firm determination and good programming skills you will probably master your setup in a month (assuming you have a job and are doing this as a hobby). But again, that also depends on how much hobby electronics and MCU programming you have done before. This is not a good project if you are new to microelectronics.

    I wish you the very best of luck on your project and would love to hear now things progress!

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 21/10/2011 @ 18:09

  27. avatar

    Hi Dr. Ivan..
    Well actually my final project is about color sensor too …
    And I got many information from this…

    In your schematic you use photoresistor, can I use photodiode?
    What is different between photoresistor and photodiode?

    Thank you….

    Comment by abdul — 05/01/2012 @ 05:52

  28. avatar


    I am a student and still exploring electronics.I am really interested with this project “color sensor” and I would like to propose this one. But I was wondering if this project will still be functional if it is purely circuits and dont have any program???

    I really dont have any idea bout this and really need ur knowldge so much…. I really want this project … soon…. thank u so much

    Comment by aamirxyris — 14/01/2012 @ 15:43

  29. avatar

    @abdul – Hi! Yes, that is possible! Take a look here – http://www.robotroom.com/ReversedLED.html As for the difference, please consult google – there are tons of pages explaining the difference!

    @aamirxyris – Hello there! Yup, that would be possible – but probably harder than just doing simple programming on an Arduino. To do without, you would probably need three photoresistors with an LED each. These groups (LED+photoR) must be light isolated from one another. With some circuitry work you will then be able to connect their output to an RGB LED for output.

    Hope this helps both of you!

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 14/01/2012 @ 16:06

  30. avatar

    hello Dr,

    just found your video and it is very helpful
    well i have this project for my electronics lab and i need it urgently, i have to use a microcontroller and a breadboard instead of the pcb…
    in addition i have to do a color mixer with it (using syringes) and my sensor should work for red green blue and white as well…
    So i dont have any idea yet about the mixer and really need your knowledge…
    thank you so much in advance,

    Comment by elie — 14/01/2012 @ 19:19

  31. avatar

    30.hello Dr,

    just found your video and it is very helpful
    well i have this project for my electronics lab and i need it urgently, i have to use a microcontroller and a breadboard instead of the pcb…
    in addition i have to do a color mixer with it (using syringes) and my sensor should work for red green blue and white as well…
    So i dont have any idea yet about the mixer and really need your knowledge…
    thank you so much in advance,

    Comment by elie — 14/01/2012 @ 23:29

  32. avatar

    hello dr..i would like to ask..i need to design and make a prototype regarding to this sensor colour..i need to verify a lots of colour not only red,green and blue..i had lot’s of confuse how to calibrate the colour..can you show to me..thankz

    Comment by slumber — 06/03/2012 @ 13:54

  33. avatar

    Hi DR
    I am going to do something similar
    but I am going to detect colour using a D.I.Y camera instead of using colour sensor
    I am looking the way of identifying the wavelength of colour or the frequency of the colour
    If you know anything of this,could you please guide me?
    Your help is much appreciated!

    Comment by Li Sheng — 17/03/2012 @ 08:44

  34. avatar

    Hi there!

    I am not quite sure what you mean. What kind of DIY camera are you using?

    Most cameras will output pictures on frame-by-frame basis, so you only need to look at the correct pixels to get your RGB values. If your camera outputs in some other format (f.ex. YCbCr) you will just need to have a piece of code that converts this to whatever format you desire.

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 17/03/2012 @ 10:08

  35. avatar

    Well,I am going to make a colour identifier without using any colour sensor.
    Which means a D.I.Y colour sensor built by using a camera,programming and PIC microcontroller etc.
    Can you guide me with these info?

    Comment by Li Sheng — 17/03/2012 @ 12:55

  36. avatar

    Oh, in that case – take a look at comments #23, 24 and 25 above. They should get you going in the right direction ;)

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 17/03/2012 @ 13:00

  37. avatar

    I have a question here,
    actually how the camera signal can identify the RGB value itself? Is it by its pixel/resolution?
    Here an example,the camera will capture a image of colours,how did the camera output signal know which part of image is the specific colour? Is it somekind of colour code or wavelength? Furthermore,what is BITS really is and what it related to colour or pixels? I just wan to know more about identification,
    Thanks for your professional sharing!

    Comment by Li Sheng — 18/03/2012 @ 16:26

  38. avatar

    Hello Dr,

    I found your info very useful. I’m creating a sensor detector as my assignment But I’m not gonna use the NPN transistor. Could you please guide me how to connect my resistor to LEDs without the transistor.

    thanks a lot in advance.

    Comment by baran — 21/03/2012 @ 17:06

  39. avatar

    Hi Baran! Connect them directly to the LEDs ;)

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 21/03/2012 @ 17:57

  40. avatar

    Thank you for showing this. Would like to try this using NI ELVIS and LabVIEW. Do you think it could be done?

    Comment by Janis — 23/03/2012 @ 05:01

  41. avatar

    Hi Janis!

    I am unfortunately not familiar with the NI ELVIS platform, however – after looking a little online – I don’t think that it would be a problem.

    Good luck! ;)

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 23/03/2012 @ 07:02

  42. avatar

    Hello Dr.

    I am doing a project that requires a color sensor. Actually I am trying to use Colorpal from parallax. But after I read through your blog, I am thinking of doing my own color sensor. For the transistor, is it fine if i use C1815 NPN?

    Thanks in advance.

    Comment by Zippo — 04/04/2012 @ 04:01

  43. avatar

    Hi Zippo! Yeah, sure it is! Good luck ;)

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 04/04/2012 @ 05:32

  44. avatar

    Hello Dr,

    From the photos I see 1 transistor, but from the schematics for the protoboard there are 3.So, it should be 3 right?

    Comment by Zippo — 04/04/2012 @ 05:57

  45. avatar

    hey..your programm is not working on my pc.. there are just a much of files

    Comment by endys — 06/05/2012 @ 21:01

  46. avatar

    Hey Doc! Thanks a lot for your tips and explanation about making the color sensor. I just made it with a couple of mates, we used an ATMEGA32 and is working really good. We just had some external problems because of the kind of LED’s and LDR we’re using, but we solved it. I would like to share our final result with you. Thanks a lot again, greetings from México!

    Comment by Nelson — 17/05/2012 @ 02:13

  47. avatar

    Dr. Ivan
    Thank you very much the informative video. I would just like to ask if photoresistor is replaced by phototransistor in above circuit would it still work?

    Comment by Ahmed — 11/08/2012 @ 10:10

  48. avatar

    Unfortunate no, Ahmed – these do work differently and you would have to change the circuit if you would like to use phototransistors!

    Anyways, thank you for watching the video!

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 11/08/2012 @ 10:25

  49. avatar

    Hello Dr.
    I want make a color sorter machine.Can I use this color sensor to realize marbles in red,green and blue colors in a dark environment?
    tank you

    Comment by Ali — 15/08/2012 @ 08:56

  50. avatar

    Sure you can, Ali! ;)

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 15/08/2012 @ 10:01

  51. avatar

    sir ..
    hi ,,
    i cant understand the use of the coloured square and the different provided above to calibrate ,, please explain ..
    thank u

    Comment by kartik — 19/09/2012 @ 15:32

  52. avatar

    sir do u have anything related to stepper motors and their interfacing with atmega 16 ,,
    thanks for color sensor guide :)

    Comment by kartik — 19/09/2012 @ 15:36

  53. avatar

    Hi, kartik!

    The coloured square shows the color detected by the sensor.

    “and the different provided above to calibrate…” – Not sure if I got the other half of your question though? The different what?

    No, sorry, don’t have a tutorial for that – although I will advise you to look for info elsewhere online. Stepper motors are a rather common application when it comes to MCUs, so there is plenty of information on them!

    Thanks you for looking at my blog and leaving a comment!

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 20/09/2012 @ 00:25

  54. avatar

    haha sorry Dr that was a editing mistake :D … thanks alot for guiding , i will ask some other things later :)

    Comment by kartik — 20/09/2012 @ 09:53

  55. avatar


    I’m working on a project to close windows when it rains similar to rain sensing windshield wipers. I wanted to use an electro-optical sensor for my Arduino Uno but cannot find enough information on this sensor and how to interface it with the microcontroller. Any suggestions you can make to help guide me with this project, thank you.

    Comment by Mike — 18/11/2012 @ 00:47

  56. avatar

    Hi Mike!

    Not sure you need a color sensor for that – perhaps a humidity sensor or something similar. However, this is far tougher than it actually sounds – your sensor might erroneously detect high humidity as rain. If you create a collection cup that senses any rain drops landing inside, you might have the problem your sensor might require a lot of time to activate (at least one raindrop has to hit a rather small sensor)… So I am afraid that I don’t have too much to recommend, sorry.

    Nonetheless, good luck – and if you discover some interesting trick to do this, feel free to post it here! I’d love to hear from you again.

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 20/11/2012 @ 20:02

  57. avatar

    Hello Doc,
    I have built the sensor that you have shown in this tutorial and im using Arduino as Controller.The Problem is that on Red Surface the Red LED is showing the least value when it has to show the maximum?What might be the possible error

    Comment by Mihir Shah — 21/11/2012 @ 15:05

  58. avatar

    Hi Mihir! Are your other leds working fine?


    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 21/11/2012 @ 15:13

  59. avatar

    hai doc.. can i ask you something..i want to detect the yellow color of the object..how can i do that?

    Comment by zack — 26/11/2012 @ 15:01

  60. avatar

    Hi there, zack! If you *only* want to detect levels of yellow, use a yellow LED. Otherwise you can easily use the sensor described above – yellow is composited of red and green colors. So if you scan a yellow object, you will see low values og B, while R and G values will be high.

    Hope this helps!

    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 26/11/2012 @ 16:26

  61. avatar

    oh..i see.i will try out..thanks a lot doc. :)

    Comment by zack — 27/11/2012 @ 04:30

  62. avatar

    I want to make a white color sensor for my project could u guide me abt its connection & programming.

    Comment by gsingh — 30/11/2012 @ 13:16

  63. avatar

    Hi there! Not sure what you mean by “white color sensor”?
    Also, please dear sir, try to formulate specific questions. What have you done already? What problems do you have?


    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 30/11/2012 @ 23:52

  64. avatar

    Hello Dr.
    I am making a project on thermography control of motor. when any part of motor get overheat it shows white color on thermal image. I looking for some sensor which gives a Voltage signal when it detect presence of only white color in thermal image, this can be used to OFF a motor when motor get overheated automatically.

    Comment by gsingh — 01/12/2012 @ 12:20

  65. avatar

    Hello Dr, i need your help. i am running my color sensor,same as yours, with arduino. i want to ask, can i run the GUI that u have give in arduino?i try to run it in my arduino,and i still don’t get how i am suppose to make the GUI run in my arduino program.

    Comment by zack — 05/03/2013 @ 17:44

  66. avatar

    Hey I ran your java file for sensing colors. It either gives me a number format exception error or sets all values to 255 after calibrating. What should I do?

    Comment by Sukriti — 17/03/2013 @ 15:58

  67. avatar

    Hi Sukriti!

    You should run the debugger to find out what the problem is!


    Comment by Dr. Ivan — 17/03/2013 @ 20:05

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